Frederic Sterling Lee passed away on October 23, 2014, just one month before his 65th birthday, after a brave battle against cancer. He was diagnosed with stage four lung cancer at the end of February. He, however, never stopped working for his students and for the community of heterodox economists until the end of his life, as he always did over the past 30 years of his academic career. The entire community of heterodox economists across the world is saddened by the passing of Fred Lee.
Fred Lee was born in 1949 in Nyack, NY and grew up in Virginia. His father, Sterling Lee, was a labor lawyer and his mother, Marion Burks Lee, was a politically active person. With this family background he was aware of progressive politics and civil and workers rights even in his early days. He went to Frostburg State College (Maryland, 1968-1972) and obtained a BA degree in history. While doing his undergraduate study, he was interested in philosophy and later in economics because he found that social questions in the 19th century were mainly examined by economists. After two years of working in Saudi Arabia (a supply clerk position with the Corp of Engineers in Riyadh), he returned to the United States and continued his study at Columbia University in New York City. In 1977 Fred Lee met Alfred S. Eichner who later became his “mentor, dissertation advisor, and a friend.” He once noted that the “discovery of Eichner” was “the most important in my academic career.” With Eichner’s encouragement and support, Fred Lee started his PhD study in economics at Rutgers University in 1978, where he was taught by Alfred Eichner, Paul Davidson, Jan Kregel, Nina Shapiro, and Alessandro Roncaglia, among others. After graduating from Rutgers University in 1983, he taught at University of California—Riverside (1981-1984), Roosevelt University (Chicago, 1984-1990), Staffordshire Polytechnic (Stoke-on-Trent, UK, 1990-1991), De Montfort University (Leicester, UK, 1991-2000), and the University of Missouri—Kansas City (2000-2014). [For his early life before 2000, see his short autobiography, “Predestine to Heterodoxy or How I Became a Heterodox Economist” at http://heterodoxnews.com/leefs/cv/predestine]
His contribution to heterodox economics and his influence on younger heterodox economists are enormous and invaluable. First of all, he will be remembered as the heterodox economist who endeavored to develop heterodox microeconomics that would completely replace neoclassical microeconomics. Through his magnum opus, Post Keynesian Price Theory (1998) he shows that the neoclassical price mechanism does not exist in the real world, and that there are alternative-heterodox theory of price and pricing which can be drawn from the work of Gardiner C. Means, Michal Kalecki, and P.W.S Andrews and Oxford Economists’ Research Group. This means that the entire neoclassical microeconomic framework is incoherent and irrelevant and, hence, a new theoretical framework that explains how the capitalist economic system (or the social provisioning process) works needs to be developed. He was working on this grand project toward the end of his life.
He will also be remembered as a tireless organizer and institution builder who established the Association for Heterodox Economics (1999) and the Heterodox Economics Newsletter (2004). He also served a number of heterodox economics organizations and journals, including the editorship of the American Journal of Economics and Sociology (2009-2013). He believed that institution building is as important as theory building insofar as we are concerned with the continuation and reproduction of heterodox economics. Fred Lee’s commitment to heterodox economics is also demonstrated by his book, A History of Heterodox Economics: Challenging the Mainstream in the Twentieth Century (Routledge, 2009). This is the only book ever published that deals with the institutional history of heterodox economics from 1900 to 2006 in the US and UK. More importantly, the objective of the book is to show that not only heterodox economics did/does exist, but also it can continue only if heterodox economists develop alternative theories and build institutions in the face of the dominance of mainstream economics. In fact, it took over ten years for him to complete this book. Once I asked him why he spent so much time to write this history book and then he said: “Because someone had to do it.” I now understand that it is not just someone, but someone who has a clear vision, unflagging energy, and willingness to sacrifice oneself for a better future of heterodox economics.
Lastly, he will be remembered as an inspirational teacher and wonderful mentor who taught students how to do heterodox economics in a pluralistic, realistic, and integrative manner, and who cared about his students from the bottom of his heart. Although he did not have many students who wrote a PhD dissertation under his supervision, there are lots of young heterodox economists who are largely influenced by his work. This is evidenced by all the messages collected after his passing (see here) as well as a forthcoming festschrift, Advancing the Frontiers of Heterodox Economics: Essays in Honor of Frederic S. Lee (Routledge, 2015).
Right after he was told that he got terminal lung cancer, the first thing he told me was: “We need to establish a fund that helps heterodox doctoral students in heterodox doctoral programs.” As many of us remember, this is Fred Lee, the person who always cared about young heterodox economists—that is, the future of heterodox economics.
In closing, I’d like to quote Fred Lee’s last email to heterodox economists (which was sent to various mailing lists on October 2, 2014; he personally told me that this was his “last project”):
The 2015 Solidarity Forever Labor History Calendar is now available. It features Joe Hill. If you do not know who Joe Hill is, I suggest that you do a little bit of work and find out or better yet hum to yourself, “Would you have freedom from wage slavery, …” And if you think you know something about the 1% versus the 99% and do not know who Joe Hill is then I suggest checking out the song “Preacher and the Slave” on the internet or some other strange contraption that did not exist in 1911. In the inside back page you will find a picture of myself with Joe Hill’s ashes—this is about as close as you will get to any real hero of the working class whose life was indeed put on the line—he was executed by the capitalists in 1915.
You either walk the walk or you do not; and my career (along with my colleagues from around the world) has indeed walked the walk to ensure that heterodox programs exist and heterodox economists have jobs. And this has meant significant hardships for students and colleagues (not to mention loss of employment–see “A History of Heterodox Economics”) to critically study the mainstream theory that calls into question the argument that supports the 1%. And it also means that you have to go beyond the critical and develop an alternative that draws upon the different heterodox approaches.
Through the Heterodox Economics Association Booth at the ASSA 2015, 60 Joe Hill calendars will be provided free to anyone. In return, all that is asked is that you look at the literature in the booth, in particular the scholarship material for graduate students. It is not cheap to go to graduate school; and at times it appears that those who have obtained their PhD have no interest in helping those who would like to get a PhD–in this case, they are certainly not walking the walk nor caring about the community of heterodox economists in which they operate. Do something–give a damn. For more information about the Joe Hill calendar go to http://iwwhlf.org; http://www.joehill100.com. Information about the Frederic S. Lee Heterodox Economics Scholarship Fund can be found at: http://heterodoxnews.com/leefs/fsl-scholarship.
Fred Lee is survived by his wife, Ruth, their daughter, Sally, and two granddaughters. A memorial service for Fred Lee will be held Saturday, November 8th, 1:00pm at the Ethical Society of St. Louis, 9001 Clayton Road, St. Louis, Missouri. His ashes will be scattered at a later date at the Haymarket Martyrs Monument in Chicago, IL. Condolences may be sent via Fred Lee’s website at http://heterodoxnews.com/leefs and memorial contributions can be made to the Frederic S. Lee Heterodox Economics Scholarship Fund which is housed at the Kansas City Community Foundation. Donations can be made at https://gkccfonlinedonations.org/give/leeh00.asp.
SUNY Buffalo State
October 30, 2014
October 29-31, 2014. Faculty of Economics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria campus | website
Theme: Competition, innovation investment and financial structure
The economic and financial crisis worldwide has led to a strong challenge to economic policy and economic theory behind it, however, the discussion and debate in the international academic community, requires a careful and thorough analysis of the economic theory fundamentals and microeconomic theory in particular. The overall theme of reflection in this seminar is Heterodox Microeconomics and in particular Competition, investment in innovation and financial structure.
The plurality gives rise to knowledge that transcends the monopoly of a partial view of the world and its workings, offers alternatives for the student and specialist economy can think and choose between different ways of understanding the economic process, one that considers most appropriate. The plurality in the content and teaching of microeconomics among other qualities can develop research capacity and knowledge of students who are training in our universities. In this 5th International Seminary Heterodox Microeconomics, we are looking to put on the table of discussion the monopoly of neoclassical microeconomics.
In the different faculties and schools of economics at the universities of Mexico and the world, academics and researchers are committed to reflection and processing our experience in teaching and research in microeconomics, which is expressed in a continuous review of the content and methods of teaching, this is the reason why we want to invite the community of scholars interested to contribute essays and papers the 5th International Seminary on Heterodox Microeconomics.
There were three sessions honoring Fred Lee’s contributions to Post Keynesian and Heterodox Economics (see session information in the previous post). Fred also presented at the conference. Watch the following videos.
September 25-27, 2014. University of MIssouri-Kansas City.
There will be three sessions honoring Professor Frederic S. Lee. They are:
Friday, 10:30 – 11:45 AM: Room 302A: Graduate Student Panel in Honor of Fred Lee
Moderator: Drew Westberg
- Christian Spanberger: Scarcity, Environmental Resources, and the Heterodox Production Model
- Drew Westberg: Towards a Heterodox Theory of the Spatial Economy
- Mitch Green: Of Railroads and Finance: The Making of Market Society in the Pacific Northwest
- Nicola Matthews: Modeling the Classical Surplus Approach: Contributions to the Heterodox Tradition
Saturday, 10:30 – 11:45 AM: Room 302A: Heterodox Microeconomics and Social Provisioning: A Session in Honor of Fred Lee
Moderator: Zdravka Todorova
- Zdravka Todorova: Culture-Nature Processes and Social Provisioning
- Tae-Hee Jo: Heterodox Microeconomics and Heterodox Microfoundations
- Gyun Gu: A Post Keynesian View of Price Stability
- Eric Dean: Market Equities and the Going Enterprise
- Tuna Baskoy: Social Provisioning Process, Market Instability, and Managed Competition
Saturday, September 27, 4:00 – 5:15 PM: Room 302A: Connecting Approaches in Heterodox Economics: A Session in Honor of Fred Lee
Moderator: Zdravka Todorova
- John Henry
- Gary Mongiovi
- Marc Lavoie
- Jan Kregel
Following materials are from Frederic Lee’s personal collection.
- Alfred S. Eichner, Curriculum Vita, January 1988.
- “Alfred S. Eichner Obituary,” New York Times, Feb. 13, 1988.
- Eichner, A. S. 1968. “Business and the Market Mechanism,” in The Business of America, edited by Ivar Berg, pp. 167-200. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World
- Eichner, A. S. 1968. “Public Policy for Growth,” in Manpower Strategy for the Metropolis, edited by Eli Ginzberg and The Conservation of Human Resources Staff, Columbia University, pp. 262-291. New York and London: Columbia University Press.
- Eichner, A. S. 1970. State Development Agencies and Employment Expansion. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations 18. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
- Eichner, A. S. 1971. “Monopoly, the Emergency of Oligopoly and the Case of Sugar Refining: A Reply,” Journal of Law and Economics, 14 (October): 521-527.
- Eichner, A. S. 1973. “A Theory of the Determination of the Mark-up under Oligopoly,” Economic Journal, 83 (December): 1184-1200.
- Eichner, A. S. 1973. “Human Resources Planning,” in New York is Very Much Alive: A Manpower View, edited by Eli Gizberg and The Conservation of Human Resources Staff, Columbia University, pp. 247-309. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Eichner, A. S. 1974. “Determination of the Mark-up under Oligopoly: A Comment,” Economic Journal, 84 (December): 967-980.
- Eichner, A. S. 1975. “The Megacorp as a Social Innovation and Business History,” Business and Economic History: Proceedings of Business History Conference, vol. 4: 46-66.
- Eichner, A. S. 1975. “A Theory of the Determination of the Mark-up under Oligopoly: A Further Reply,” Economic Journal, 85 (March): 149-150. (also DeLorme and Rubin’s comment, pp. 148-149).
- Eichner, A. S. 1977. “The Geometry of Macroeconomic Balance,” Australian Economic Papers, 16 (28): 53-71.
- Swann, D. 1977. Review of The Megacorp and Oligopoly by Alfred S. Eichner, Economic Journal, 87 (June): 362-364.
- Marris, R. 1977. Review of The Megacorp and Oligopoly by Alfred S. Eichner, Journal of Economic Literature, 15 (4): 1340-1343.
- Eichner, A. S. 1978. Review of Studies in Pricing by P. W. S. Andrews and Elizabeth Brunner, Journal of Economic Literature, 16 (4): 1436-1438.
- Eichner, A. S. 1979. “‘An Anthropogenic’ Approach to the Labor Market,” Eastern Economic Journal, 5 (3): 349-366.
- Eichner, A. S. 1979. “New Approach on Inflation,” New York Times, July 25.
- Eichner, A. S. 1979. “Stagflation: the Worst of Two Worlds,” New York Times, May 27.
- Eichner, A. S. 1980. “The Post-Keynesian Interpretation of Stagflation: Changing Theory to fit the Reality,” U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, Stagflation: The Causes, Effects and Solutions, Special Study on Economic Change, December. Pp. 38-66.
- Forman, L. and A. S. Eichner. 1980. “A Post-Keynesian Short-Period Model: Some Preliminary Econometric Results,” Center for Economic and Anthropogenic Research, SUNY-Purchase, Working Paper No. 4, May.
- Eichner, A. S. 1981. “Expectations in Economics,” U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, Expectations and the Economy, Government Printing Office, December. Pp. 113-118.
- Eichner, A. S. 1982. “The Micro Foundations of the Corporate Economy,” Center for Economic and Anthropogenic Research, Working Paper No. 11. December.
- Eichner, A. S. 1985. “The lack of progress in economics,” Nature 313 (Feb): 427-428; and P. Dasgupta and F. Hahn. 1983. “To the defense of economics,” Nature 317 (October): 589-590.
- Eichner, A. S. 1986. Letter to Nature (on 1985 article)
- Eichner, A. S. 1986. “The lack of progress in economics: Rejoinder.”
- Eichner, A. S. 1987. Instructor’s Manual for Macrodynamics of Advanced Market Economies. Unpublished.
- Eichner A. S. nd. “Monopolistic Practices and Competition.”
- Eichner, A. S. and E. M. Ochoa. 1988. “The Structure of Industrial Prices,” paper presented at the ASSA annual meetings, New York City, December 28.
- Tributes in the Memory of Alfred S. Eichner, edited by Frederic S. Lee, 1991 [Aaron Warne, Eli Ginzberg, Richard Bartel, Myron Sharpe, Frederic S. Lee, Len Forman, Miles Groves, Toshio Ogata, William Milberg, Paul Davidson, Philip Arestis, Roy Rotheim, and Jan Kregel]
Frederic S. Lee. “The Role of Micro in Heterodox Economics: A View of a Heterodox Micro Theorist,” Presented at the Association for Heterodox Economics Annual Conference, University of Greenwich, London, UK. July 3, 2014. [click on link to download presentation slides]
Dear Friends, Colleagues, and Heterodox Economists,
Fred Lee has been a driving force of heterodox economics movements over the past 30 years. He played a major role in establishing the Association for Heterodox Economics, founded and edited the Heterodox Economics Newsletter, edited the American Journal of Economics and Sociology, has been actively involved in heterodox associations such as AFEE, AFIT, AHE, ASE, EAEPE, HES, ICAPE, URPE, and so on. His activities and contributions are truly community-oriented and self-sacrificing. Above all, Fred has always been concerned about students since they will be the future of heterodox economics.
As some of you already know, Fred will soon retire due to an unexpected illness. In the face of uncertain life conditions, Fred and his wife, Ruth, have recently established the Heterodox Economics Scholarship Fund, which is designed to financially support doctoral heterodox economics students. The Scholarship is open to all doctoral students studying in a heterodox economics program, although currently preference is given to UMKC doctoral students due to the limited amount of funds.
We are sending out this call for contributions with the hope that you share Fred’s “good-will” and make a contribution to this Fund so that more heterodox economics students can complete their studies successfully. Moreover, if you believe you are indebted to Fred for his many contributions, contribute to the Frederic S. Lee Heterodox Economics Scholarship Fund and support students.
To learn more about the Fund, visit here: http://www.gkccf.org/scholarships/frederic-s-lee-heterodox-economics-scholarship-fund
To make a contribution, visit here: https://gkccfonlinedonations.org/give/leeh00.asp
Should you have any questions, please contact us.
John F. Henry
University of Missouri-Kansas City
SUNY Buffalo State